Craftsman select 26 snowblower reviews
[OC] correlation: InterEconReview rankings VS Mencken rankings – 2020 election
2023.03.30 12:45 terrykrohe [OC] correlation: InterEconReview rankings VS Mencken rankings – 2020 election
2023.03.30 12:37 Joyceable FAQ for Dreame L10s Ultra [2023.03]
If you're a user of the Dreame L10s Ultra, then you've come to the right place. As someone who has personally used this product and collected information from various sources, I have compiled a list of the most frequently asked questions recently to help you better understand and utilize your Dreame L10s Ultra.
This article aims to provide comprehensive answers to these questions, and I hope it can be a helpful resource for all Dreame L10s Ultra users. If you have any further questions or concerns, please don't hesitate to ask. Your feedback is always appreciated, and I will do my best to address any issues as soon as possible.
Please note that some of the answers are based on my personal experience and may differ from official sources. However, I have referenced the L10s Ultra user manua
l (which you can download from this link: https://dreametech.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/10981839107097-Dreame-L10s-Ultra-Robot-Vacuum-and-Mop-User-Manual-NL
) I also ask DreameTech support for additional information.
In addition to the sources mentioned above, I have referenced the roboter-forum thread
) for some of the frequently asked questions and their answers.
I hope this FAQ will make your experience with the L10s Ultra even better. If you have any further questions, please feel free to ask in the comments, and I will do my best to provide an answer if I can.
[Basic Questions] Q: What are the dimensions of the Dreame L10s Ultra?
A: The dimension of the Robot is 350*350*97mm;
The dimension of the Auto-Empty Base is 423*340*568mm.
The dimension of the package is 487*400*640mm Q: How long does it take to fully charge the Dreame L10s Ultra?
A: It takes approximately 6 hours. Q: What type of battery does the Dreame L10s Ultra use?
A: It uses a 5200mAh high-performance Li-Po battery pack. Q: Does the Dreame L10s Ultra have motor overload protection?
A: Yes, the Dreame L10s Ultra has overload protection for all onboard motors, including the suction module, main brush, side brush, and main driving wheel. Motor overload protection is activated when the robot is severely clogged with debris or foreign objects. Q: Can distilled water or pure water be used in the L10s Ultra water tank?
A: No, distilled water or pure water is not supported. Q: Does Alexa support the Russian language on the L10s Ultra?
A: No, Alexa does not support the Russian language, so it is not adapted for voice commands in Russian. Q: Can the L10 Ultra use a cleaning solution?
A: Yes, the L10 Ultra supports the use of specialized cleaning solutions, such as W10 cleaning solution, in a 1:200 dilution ratio. Q: How long does it take for the L10s Ultra charging station light to turn off and enter sleep mode?
A: The charging station light will turn off and enter sleep mode after 10 minutes of full charge. If the robot is on the charging dock and in "Do Not Disturb" mode, both the robot and charging station lights will turn off after 30 seconds.
What should I pay attention to before cleaning with the robot?
Make sure the robot is fully charged before cleaning. Tidy up the space, and put away fragile items and objects on the floor before cleaning. Q: How to divide or merge the areas in APP?
A: You can refer to the videos below to divide and merge the areas in the APP edit area settings. For unreasonable partitions, you can also make manual adjustments. Area Divide: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1c7l8GHCmwhIXmwPsz_KvHT6XSUpyEcS6/view?usp=sharing
Merge Areas: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1yQj4vYeTE3XuViGrOWcgInSND4wkAR4F/view?usp=sharing Q: Does the Dreamehome App support deleting all "cleaning history records"?
A: You can only delete cleaning history records by clicking on the edit icon in the upper right corner, and then clicking on the icon in the upper right corner to select all records on the current page (currently, only records on one screen can be selected in batches). Q: How to delete shortcut commands?
A: To delete shortcut commands, go to the shortcut section, select the shortcut command you want to delete, click the three dots on the right side of the command, and then select "delete". Q: What should I pay attention to before cleaning with the robot?
A: Make sure the robot is fully charged before cleaning. Tidy up the space, and put away fragile items and objects on the floor before cleaning. Q: Do I need to update the firmware whenever there is a new version released?
A: Each new firmware update is an optimization. Please update in time to ensure the best cleaning experience. Q: How can I contact Dreame Support if I have a question/problem?
A: Via the (Dreamhome) app under "General settings" - "Feedback". There you can also attach an attachment (images, video) and a log file, which the Dreame probably creates itself. You will receive an answer directly in the app. This can also be viewed under "Feedback" - "My Feedback".
Other contact options:
Customer Care (EU and Germany): [[email protected]
Customer Care (North America): [email protected]
Dreame Support Hotline(Germany): +49 800 0001747 (Monday to Friday 9:00-18:00 CET)
Dreame Support Hotline (North America): +1(866)977-5177(Mon.to Fri.9:00-18:00 CST)
[Troubleshooting] Q: What can I do when the L10s Ultra does not draw water?
A:1.Remove the robot from the charging station or drive it out.
Q: How to enable the base station self-repair function?
- Get a glass straw ready.
- If there is a cartridge inserted, remove it and clean it with a cleaner.
- Press and hold the house symbol on top of the station for 3 seconds, then the station will flood below.
- While the station is being flooded, use the straw to press the central “nipple” and suck extremely hard until the water comes out. Repeat if necessary.
- Once the water comes out of the nipple, the trick is over and the internal tank in the robot should be automatically filled with water during self-cleaning from now on.
- Press and hold the house symbol on top of the station again for 3 seconds so that the water is sucked out of the station at the bottom.
- Put the robot back into the charging station.
A: Ensure you have downloaded the Dreamehome APP and connected to your device. Go into the "more settings" menu, and tap your version number 10 times. From there, you should be able to run the base station self-repair a couple of times, and that should fix it for you. The base station self-repair function can likely solve the problem of not drawing water. Q: Why did the robot stop cleaning?
A: Please ensure that the network is connected, as the robot cannot perform the scheduled cleaning task without an internet connection.
Also, during the cleaning process, do not close doors to different areas, place obstacles on the cleaning path, or have people or pets stand on the robot's cleaning path, as this may prevent the robot from moving to other areas or returning to recharge.
If the obstacles have been removed or the doors have been opened, try to resume cleaning by starting the robot through the APP or the physical button on the robot to complete the current task. Q: How to deal with Wi-Fi network configuration failure?
A: The Dreame robot only supports a 2.4G Wi-Fi network and does not support a 5G Wi-Fi net.
You can simply check it according to the following:
- When the device is connected to the network, it is recommended to place it in a place with a strong Wi-Fi signal.
- Please turn on the location permission of the mobile phone before configuring the network and authorize the APP to use the location permission.
- When connecting to the hotpots released by the robot, after hearing the voice broadcast by the robot, return to the App and wait for the network configuration result
- It is recommended to set the home Wi-Fi name and password to English or numbers, and it is recommended not to use special characters,
- The connection failure may also be related to the model of the mobile, you can try to use other different models of mobile phones to do the connection
If the above method does not work, you can try to use another mobile phone to open the hotpots and try again.
For further assistance required, please kindly contact the Dreame Support Team. Q: Why does the Dreame L10s Ultra fail to charge?
A: Please clean the charging interface of the Base and the robot if there is any dust on it, as dust may result in charging failure.
- I consulted Dreame about the specific content of firmware update optimization in the Dreamehome app, and they promised to showcase the updated content in the near future for users to better understand. I am looking forward to this feature being launched.
- I provided feedback on some poorly translated content and Dreame support promised to continue optimizing the translations for all languages to make them easier to understand.
The above is the content I compiled. I would be happy if it could be helpful to everyone.
submitted by Joyceable
to Dreame_Tech [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 12:37 EXCELLORATOR_PERSON EXCELLORATOR SELECTIONS FOR GULFSTREAM PARK AND OAKLAWN PARK - 30 MAR 2023
2023.03.30 12:36 Playful_Economy1196 Mcheza review
Are you looking for a review of mcheza, an online sports betting site? Then you’ve come to the right place! mcheza is one of the leading telebetting and sports betting sites in Kenya, backed by a reliable and secure network on diversdeluxe.co.za. They offer an extensive selection of sports events and games from around the globe, as well as competitive bonuses and
submitted by Playful_Economy1196
to u/Playful_Economy1196 [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 12:29 deeptechsharing VA – 200: Anniversary Selection [PLTL200]
Progressive House, Melodic House & Techno, Indie Dance Label:
Polyptych Limited Release Date:
2023-04-26 DOWNLOAD in 320kbps here: https://sharing-db.club/house/427518_va-200-anniversary-selection-pltl200/
Tracklist: 1. STE-O – Past Times (Original Mix) (6:56) 2. Manu Be – Lockdown (Christian Florio Remix) (9:08) 3. Idos – Dance Like You’re Alone (Rina & Tom Antopolsky Remix) (7:10) 4. Kanas – Tango From Mars (Original Mix) (7:18) 5. Seething Flow – Forest (Daddy’s Wave’s Remix) (5:50) 6. Zebulon – Shine Again (Extended Mix) (7:32) 7. POSYDON – Brisa (Extended Mix) (7:17) 8. Amarone – Moan (Original Mix) (5:53) 9. Hernan Serrao – La Patagonia (Kade B Remix) (6:58) 10. Nick Mason – La Resistance (Original Mix) (8:21) 11. Moiety – Hiding (Original Mix) (5:45) 12. Max Metrix – Lonely Monk (Original Mix) (7:07) 13. Joe di Bianco – Visionary Route (Extended Mix) (7:38) 14. Mechanism – Adara (Extended Mix) (6:47) 15. A X L – Space Magnet (Original Mix) (6:40) 16. EZEK – Sixth Sense (Extended Mix) (6:39) 17. Kylian Lake – Together (Original Mix) (4:46) 18. Scian – Kiaro (Original Mix) (6:35) 19. PARTEK – Dr. Bishop (Original Mix) (6:48) 20. Vincent De La Tore – Space Restart (Extended Mix) (7:52) 21. Alfonso Ares – Street Fan (Extended Mix) (7:32) 22. Stephan Seddel – Redemption (Vocal Mix) (6:52) 23. Acidbro, Sasha 4Time, Acid & Time – Lost Dreams (Alex Panchenco Remix) (6:24) 24. ANASTASiiA – Lightstorm (Original Mix) (5:50) 25. nineteen79 – Breathe (Original Mix) (7:44) 26. Rodyy – Cosmos (Original Mix) (8:19) 27. Fazlen – Artemis (Original Mix) (8:00) 28. Michael Kortenhaus – Night Vision (Original Mix) (7:17) 29. Gians – In Love (Original Mix) (5:58) 30. Smart Wave – Amartizare (Axel Zambrano Remix) (7:21) 31. Blufeld – Holding on to Magic (Extended Mix) (6:13) 32. Ezara – Plato’s Atlantis (Extended Mix) (7:37) 33. Zaria – Felicitas (Original Mix) (7:06) 34. Kanas – Polar (Ann LoV Remix) (5:46) 35. Pandorum, Home Shell, Olven – Shining Smile (Original Mix) (7:49) 36. Joseph DL, Atamu – Towards the Universe (Original Mix) (6:47) 37. Black Paradise – Farewell (Original Mix) (6:21) 38. Ruben Zurita, Flashingroof, Pedro Andrade G – Tanzmanian Devil (Monograph & QTEQ Remix) (6:34) 39. A · Tonic – Poetic of Chaos (Original Mix) (7:38) 40. K Logan – Emotional Moment (Original Mix) (8:34) 41. Chär Spinelli, Gabriel Spinelli – Balder (Original Mix) (7:50) 42. Hernan Serrao – La Patagonia (Zy Khan Remix) (8:03) 43. Idos – Dance Like You’re Alone (Original Mix) (6:14) 44. Franco Romano – Lost in Time (Original Mix) (7:43) 45. Steel Tone – Blue Moon (Original Mix) (7:08) 46. James Halon – Darkness Prevails (Original Mix) (5:17) 47. MACANNÂ – Enigmatic (Original Mix) (6:55) 48. Escape Room – Don’t Say No (Original Mix) (5:53) 49. Smart Wave – Indirect (Alex Woessner Remix) (7:01) 50. Slive – Focus (Original Mix) (8:08)
submitted by deeptechsharing
to u/deeptechsharing [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 12:26 fatboynotsoslim Sonaar is unable to add new shows, logs show the API searches ID correctly but then adds as -1
I hope this information is useful, let me know if anything more is needed, we can go to email support if required (I have screenshots too if needed). Using the app, adding a new show to Sonaar doesn't work. Enabling the trace log in Sonaar, we can see that a successful search somehow gets transformed into being added as series '-1'. Oddly, without fail, if I select "Add + Search" NZB360 will redirect me to the show Booze Traveller (tvdb: 288463) :confused: Every time without fail regardless of what I searched for originally. I searched for the show Unstable 2023
as a random new show, but this same behavior occurs for any other shows that I test out for adding.
2023-03-30 12:04:22.5DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/series/lookup?term=tvdb:418721: 200.OK (1052 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:22.5DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/languageprofile: 200.OK (1 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:23.0DebugRootFolderServiceGenerating list of unmapped folders 2023-03-30 12:04:26.2DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/rootFolder: 200.OK (5005 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:27.3DebugRootFolderService5 unmapped folders detected. 2023-03-30 12:04:34.7DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/series: 200.OK (1521 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:40.9DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/series/-1: 200.OK (7 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:40.9DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/series/-1: 200.OK (9 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:41.7DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/episode?seriesId=1: 200.OK (10 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:41.7DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/episode?seriesId=1: 200.OK (7 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:41.7DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/qualityprofile: 200.OK (6 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:42.4DebugRootFolderServiceGenerating list of unmapped folders 2023-03-30 12:04:42.4DebugRootFolderService5 unmapped folders detected. 2023-03-30 12:04:42.4DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/rootFolder: 200.OK (114 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:43.1DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/tag: 200.OK (2 ms) 2023-03-30 12:04:43.8DebugApi[GET] /api/v3/languageprofile: 200.OK (2 ms)
I have 1069 shows currently in Sonaar. I have ~230ms latency between myself/NZB360 and my Sonaar instance (in case the high ms timeouts are too low) Sonaar Version 18.104.22.1687 NZB360 version 16.2.1 (This issue has been happening for some time, so it's not a new issue with a recent release.) I have Radaar on the same host, with ~6000 movies, and they get added via NZB360 without any issue.
submitted by fatboynotsoslim
to nzb360 [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 12:17 realestatetip What to Look for When Hiring a Real Estate Consultant in Gurgaon
| || | submitted by realestatetip to u/realestatetip [link] [comments]
If you're in the market for a property in Gurgaon, it's important to find the right real estate consultant to help you navigate the complex and ever-changing real estate market
. With so many options to choose from, it can be difficult to know what to look for when selecting a consultant. In this blog, we'll discuss some important factors to consider when hiring a real estate consultant in Gurgaon
Why Hire a Real Estate Consultant?
Before we dive into what to look for in a real estate consultant in Gurgaon
, it's important to understand why you might want to hire one in the first place. Real estate consultants have in-depth knowledge of the local market and can help you find the right property at the right price. They can also provide valuable insights into market trends, property values, and the legal and financial aspects of real estate transactions.
In addition to their expertise, real estate consultants can save you time and stress by handling the many details involved in buying or selling a property. They can help you with everything from property inspections and negotiations to contract drafting and closing.
Now that we've covered the benefits of working with the best real estate consultant, let's discuss what to look for when hiring one in Gurgaon. Why Hire a Real Estate Consultant in Gurgaon?
Experience and Credentials
One of the most important factors to consider when selecting a real estate consultant is their experience and credentials. Look for a real estate consultant in Gurgaon
who has a proven track record of success in the Gurgaon market, as well as the appropriate licenses and certifications.
You may also want to consider the consultant's education and training. A consultant with a background in real estate, law, or finance may be better equipped to handle the legal and financial aspects of your transaction. Experience and Credentials
In addition to experience and credentials, it's important to choose a top-rated real estate consultant in Gurgaon
who has in-depth knowledge of the local market. Look for a consultant who is familiar with the different neighborhoods and property types in Gurgaon, as well as market trends and property values.
A local consultant may also have valuable connections with other professionals in the real estate industry, such as home inspectors, lenders, and title companies. These connections can be especially helpful during the buying or selling process. Local Knowledge
Effective communication is key when working with a real estate consultant. Look for a consultant who is responsive and easy to reach, and who communicates clearly and effectively.
During your initial consultation with a potential real estate consultant in Gurgaon
, pay attention to how they listen to your needs and concerns, and how they explain their services and process. A consultant who takes the time to understand your goals and preferences is more likely to provide personalized service and help you find the right property for your needs. Communication Skills
If you're selling a property, it's important to choose a consultant who has a strong marketing strategy. Look for a consultant who uses a variety of marketing channels, such as online listings, social media, and print advertising, to reach potential buyers.
Ask the consultant to explain their marketing plan and how they will showcase your property's unique features and benefits. A real estate consultant in Delhi
who has a solid marketing plan and is proactive about promoting your property is more likely to attract qualified buyers and sell your property quickly. Marketing Strategy
Client References and Reviews
Before hiring a real estate consultant in Delhi
, it's important to check their references and reviews from past clients. Look for a consultant who has positive reviews and testimonials from clients who have had successful transactions with them.
You may also want to ask the consultant for references from clients who have worked with them on transactions similar to yours. Speaking with past clients can provide valuable insights into the consultant's communication style, expertise, and overall level of service. Client References and Reviews
Choosing the right real estate consultant in Gurgaon
is a crucial part of the buying or selling process. By considering the factors we've discussed in this blog a list of potential consultants, interviewing them, and checking their references and reviews, you can find a consultant who will provide expert guidance and personalized service throughout your transaction.
Remember to take the time to discuss your goals and preferences with potential consultants, and to ask questions about their experience, local knowledge, and marketing strategy. By doing your due diligence and selecting the right consultant, you can ensure a smooth and successful real estate transaction in Gurgaon. Final Thoughts In conclusion, here are some key takeaways for what to look for when hiring a real estate consultant in Gurgaon:
- Look for a consultant with experience and credentials in the Gurgaon market
- Choose a consultant with in-depth local knowledge and valuable connections in the industry
- Select a consultant with strong communication skills who will listen to your needs and preferences
- Consider the consultant's marketing strategy if you're selling a property
- Check the consultant's references and reviews from past clients
By following these tips, you can find a real estate consultant in Gurgaon who will provide the expertise, guidance, and personalized service you need to achieve your real estate goals in Gurgaon.
2023.03.30 12:01 AnimeMod Anime Questions, Recommendations, and Discussion - March 30, 2023
2023.03.30 11:55 SuSanRuns 11 Best 26 Inch Road Bike Tires To Buy On Amazon
2023.03.30 11:55 AutoModerator Binance Review and Comparison - Things to Know Before Signing Up (2021 Updated)
is one of the leading cryptocurrency trading platforms around, with over 200 coins supported for deposit and withdrawal. In this review I’ll cover the main things you need to know before signing up
. If you are short on time, or just don't like to read, check out this quick review video
There’s a lot to love about Binance, and many traders continue to be upbeat about the service. Low fees, a responsive exchange, and developers with a proven track record leave most people beaming. Binance has generally been considered a comprehensive success in its short life so far. Binance vs Kraken:
Kraken, headquartered in San Francisco, California, is one of the oldest cryptocurrency exchanges around. It operates across the United States (with the exception of New York due to the BitLicense) and Canada, as well as in the European Union and Japan. The platform supports over 30 different cryptos (As opposed to Binance’s 200+). You can read my Kraken review here. Like Bitfinex, Kraken also works on a maker taker fee schedule. Makers have a max fee of 0.16% and takers have a max fee of 0.26%. In both cases Binance wins with lower fees.
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submitted by AutoModerator
to CitadelLLC [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 11:54 Litvinik01 Blocking keyboard navigation
Hello there. When I am pushing Alt key twice the keyboard navigation activates and I am really bored to switch it off. It even happens when I use key combinations for example Shift+Alt for switching languages. Does anybody now how to disable this feature? Many thanks in advance :D
submitted by Litvinik01
to pchelp [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 11:47 afinity_ms A Complete Guide to Choosing the Best Air Conditioner, AC Service in Lahore, and Understanding How Many Units are Consumed by a 1.5 Ton AC
| || | submitted by afinity_ms to ac_services_in_lahore [link] [comments]
As temperatures rise, a reliable air conditioner becomes a necessity for comfortable living. With the vast array of air conditioners available in the market, selecting the right one can be a daunting task. In this guide, we will discuss the factors to consider when choosing the best air conditioner, where to find the best AC service in Lahore
, and how many units are consumed by a 1.5 ton AC.
Choosing the Best Air Conditioner
When shopping for an air conditioner, you need to consider various factors such as the size of your room, your budget, energy efficiency, and features that suit your lifestyle. Here are some of the key factors to consider when selecting the best air conditioner
The first step is to determine the size of your room. You need an air conditioner that can cool the entire room effectively. The British Thermal Unit (BTU) is used to measure an air conditioner's cooling capacity. For a room of 150-250 square feet, you will need an air conditioner with a capacity of 5000-7000 BTUs. For larger rooms, you may need a unit with a higher BTU rating.
Energy efficiency is an essential factor to consider when selecting an air conditioner. An energy-efficient air conditioner will save you money on your electricity bills in the long run. Air conditioners with higher SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) ratings are more efficient. Look for air conditioners with a SEER rating of at least 14. AC Service in Lahore
Modern air conditioners
come with various features that improve their functionality and convenience. Some of the essential features include a programmable thermostat, remote control, multiple fan speeds, and a sleep mode. Consider what features are important to you and select an air conditioner that has them.
Air conditioners come in various price ranges, from budget-friendly to high-end models. Determine your budget and select an air conditioner that meets your needs without breaking the bank.
AC Service in Lahore Regular maintenance is essential for keeping your air conditioner in top condition. In Lahore, there are numerous AC service
providers that offer maintenance, repair, and installation services. Here are some tips for finding the best AC service in Lahore
Start by researching AC service providers in Lahore. Look for reviews, ratings, and testimonials from previous customers to gauge their quality of service.
Consider the experience of the AC service provider. Experienced providers have the knowledge and expertise to handle various AC-related issues effectively.
Look for AC service providers that are certified by relevant authorities. Certification is a sign that the provider has met the necessary standards of quality and professionalism.
Pricing: Compare pricing among different AC service providers. Look for providers that offer competitive pricing without compromising on the quality of service.
How Many Units are Consumed by a 1.5 Ton AC? The electricity consumption of an air conditioner depends on various factors such as the size of the unit, the cooling load, and the frequency of use. Here is a general guide on how many units are consumed by a 1.5 ton AC:
The number of hours you use your AC determines its electricity consumption. On average, a 1.5 ton AC consumes around 1.5-2.5 units per hour. If you use your AC for eight hours a day, it will consume around 12-20 units per day.
The cooling load refers to the amount of heat that needs to be removed from a room to maintain a comfortable temperature. The higher the cooling load, the more electricity an air conditioner will consume. Factors that affect the cooling load
2023.03.30 11:45 shelfcorp1 How to Set Up a Shelf Corporation: A Step-by-Step Guide
2023.03.30 11:24 day_li_ly intl asian in cs being a shotgunner
- Gender: F
- Race/Ethnicity: Asian
- Residence: international (China)
- Income Bracket: $200-300k
- Type of School: private international school
- Hooks: none
: Computer Science Academics
- GPA: 3.99 UW; school doesn't weight
- Rank: school doesn't rank
- I study the Cambridge International A Level curriculum. My subjects:
- Maths (A*)
- Further Maths (A in AS Level; predicted A*)
- Physics (A in AS Level; predicted A*)
- Chemistry (A in AS Level; predicted A*)
- Economics (A in AS Level; predicted A*)
- ACT: 36 (36E, 36M, 36R, 36S)
- AP: 5 in Calc BC, 5 in Comp Sci A
- TOEFL: 112 (30R, 28L, 25S, 29W)
- TMUA (Cambridge entrance exam to CS): 7.5 out of 9
- Research project in programming language theory, presented at a major conference
- Internship at the programming language lab of the national academy of science
- Internship at a computer graphics startup
- Part-time job at a blockchain consultancy
- Wrote and maintained open source libraries with 100+ stars on github
- Dinghy sailing; my country doesn't have varsity but I competed in regional competitions and got gold medal in one of them
- Part of a volunteer translator team aiming to translate literature on trans care into Chinese, in order to improve the quality of trans care in China
- Spoke at a TEDx (lol)
- Wrote a discord bot that gained ~2k users
- Photographer at multiple school events, took photos that are used in school brochures, etc
- Finalist team (7%), High School Mathematical Contest in Modelling (HiMCM) 2020
- Bronze in finals, Senior group, American Computer Science League (ACSL) 2021
- High Distinction, Senior group, Canadian Computing Competition (CCC) 2021
and a bunch of less important awards. Letters of Recommendation
I got to read both of my LoRs.
- Math teacher: I was not very active in her class so she mainly incorporated points in my resume. Specifically, she talked about the details of the 2 weeks of HiMCM contest (which I didn't have space to write about in my application) as well as my passion for activism.
- English teacher: I was very active in her class, and she specifically praised my ability of critical thinking and academic writing. She also mentioned my willingness to help others in class.
I got interviews from University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, and University of Pennsylvania. Note that different from US colleges, interviews for UK universities are mainly academic and are a part of the filtering process.
- University of Cambridge: 2 rounds of interviews involving questions about my CS activities, as well as general logic and CS problems. Interviewers were encouraging and helpful, and I was able to give complete answers to all of the questions.
- Imperial College London: 1 round of interview with 3 questions: one about my CS activities, one math question involving integration by substitution, and one logic question. I struggled to answer the second one but was able to answer the rest with relative ease.
- University of Pennsylvania: Alumni interview. Interviewer was CO '26 in CS who just started his PhD program. We talked about our interests in CS, and many aspects about Penn.
Decisions (RD if not stated otherwise) Acceptances:
- US main essay: I wrote about my experience in dinghy sailing despite being overweight. This is a cliche, but I really ran out of ideas. My English teacher said it was well written in a technical sense, though. I'd like to think I got accepted to my choices despite my main essay.
- UK main essay: because the UK application does not have a section for extracurriculars, I got to elaborate on many of my CS activities in the essay and make a convincing case in my interest and ability on the subject. I think the essay helped me a lot in admission to the more selective UK universities.
- Carnegie Mellon University!! (SCS, ED2 deferred to RD)
- New York University (Tandon)
- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (EA)
- Northeastern University (NU Bound)
- University of Wisconsin - Madison (EA)
- University of California, Davis
- University of Massachusetts Amherst
- The Ohio State University
- Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology (EA)
- Oberlin College
- University of Cambridge (College: Trinity Hall)
- Imperial College London
- University College London
- University of Bristol
- University of Michigan (EA deferred to RD)
- Purdue University (EA deferred to RD)
- Georgia Institute of Technology (EA deferred to RD)
- University of California, Irvine
- Boston University
- Colby College
- Cornell University (ED)
- Johns Hopkins University
- Northwestern University
- Vanderbilt University
- Washington University at St. Louis
- University of Southern California (Viterbi)
- Tufts University
- University of California, Los Angeles
- University of California, Santa Barbara
- University of California, San Diego
- University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (EA)
- University of Washington
- Harvard University
- University of Pennsylvania
- Duke University
- Columbia University
- University of California, Berkeley
I'll update as decisions come out in the following days! Additional Information:
I have no big takeaways from my experience apart from that admission to top colleges these days is truly random and impossible to predict. Good luck yall
submitted by day_li_ly
to collegeresults [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 11:23 NimbleThor I played and ranked all 50+ Netflix Games with no iAPs or Ads to pick 15 ACTUAL good ones (short reviews + links inside)
Netflix has over 50 games now, some of which are great, while others are just “meh”.
So I figured I’d play and rank them all + review the 15 best ones. So that you can get a quick idea of whether or not they’re actually worth checking out :)
This is meant as the 16th entry in my "best of" series here on the sub, where I’ve previously covered Dungeon Crawlers
, Upcoming Games of 2023
, Idle Games
, Reverse Bullet-Hell games
, Turn-Based Strategy Games
, Offline RPGs
, Multiplayer PvP Games
, Mobile Ports
, Tower Defense Games
, Upcoming Shooters 2022
, Traditional Roguelikes
, Netflix Games
, Upcoming Games of 2022
, and Action RPGs
I hope you'll enjoy it, and be sure to share your thoughts below if you’ve already played some of these? :) Watch the video version for some extra context
THE BEST GAMES: 1) TMNT: Shredder’s Revenge (Fighting/Beat’em’up) - Landscape
The first game is Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Shredder’s Revenge, which is a fun campaign-based beat 'em-up fighting game with both single and co-op multiplayer.
This is just a really well-made game, and it was already a massive hit on Steam and consoles before Netflix brought it to mobile. And for good reason, I might add.
The retro art-style and animations are spot-on, the level design is awesome, and there are more than 12 different attacks and combo moves to remember.
It also has quick match-making for the co-op multiplayer parts, and with 4 players in total, things get really chaotic - in a good way. So if you like fighting games, this is just a must-try.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/tmnt-shredders-revenge/id6443475072
2) Lucky Luna (Platform/Action) - Portrait
Another really great one is Lucky Luna from the developers of Alto’s Adventure.
This is a fun platform action game where the twist is that we can’t jump. So instead, we simply swipe left and right to move and use our speed and high precision to survive the dangerous traps and difficult boss rooms.
We’re scored based on how fast we complete each level, how many pearls we collect, and our number of deaths - and if you wanna reach the top of the highscores, this gets really intense!
The touch controls are perfect in this one, and there are lots of secret areas to discover, which I really enjoyed. And once we’ve completed the main campaign, there’s even an endless mode for some extra replayability.
I think most of you are gonna love this one.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/lucky-luna/id1609150630
3) Into The Breach (Strategy/Roguelike/Sci-fi) - Landscape
It’s not all just fast-paced action games, though - because the turn-based sci-fi strategy game Into The Breach, from the developers of Faster Than Light, is also on mobile now.
Our objective is to use our customizable troops to destroy the invading aliens before they eliminate our civilian cities. And the entire game essentially plays like a roguelike, where we attempt to get through a series of randomly generated campaigns without dying.
The gameplay is great fun, and there’s plenty of replayability.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/into-the-breach/id1616542180
4) Spiritfarer (Management/Casual) - Landscape
Another super popular PC game brought to mobile is the relaxing management game Spiritfarer.
It’s a beautiful story-based adventure full of delightful characters with great humor, and it’s almost impossible not to get immersed in the game’s theme of bringing stranded spirits safely to their afterlife.
Apart from the main objectives, we can also just travel between islands, catch fish, upgrade our boat, and much more. And with over 30 hours of gameplay, this is an easy recommendation.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/spiritfarer-netflix-edition/id1610577424
5) Dust & Neon (Twin-Stick/ShooteAction) - Landscape
Next is the Western-themed roguelite twin-stick shooter Dust & Neon - which, yet again, used to only be available on PC but is not out on mobile.
Controlling a cyborg gunslinger, our job is to select a mission, kill all the monsters, find the secret areas, collect ammo, and defeat the bosses. And then repeat that.
In-between, we then improve our offensive and defensive skills, and gradually upgrade our base to make the next playthrough a bit easier.
The touch controls work alright, but they’re definitely the game’s biggest downside. But its great art-style and fun gameplay still makes it a nice experience.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/dust-neon/id1622720173
6) Reigns Three Kingdoms (Strategy/Card) - Portrait
Reigns: Three Kingdoms is the fifth game in the super popular series of decision-based strategy games.
Just like in the predecessors, we’re presented with a seemingly endless series of events that we swipe left or right to respond to in different ways. Each of these decisions impact one of four traits, and if any of them become too unbalanced, we lose the game.
But this time around, we also have to recruit units that we then use to fight in the game’s new combat system. And they even took this system and built in an entire game mode just focused on real-time multiplayer combat.
It’s new, it’s fresh, and if you liked the previous games, I think you’ll enjoy it.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/reigns-three-kingdoms/id1636948693
7) Twelve Minutes (Point’n’Click/Thriller) - Landscape
I’m not gonna spoil the story of this one, but what I will say is that the top-down point’and’click thriller Twelve Minutes really got me hooked.
It’s basically a complex time-loop game where we have to figure out how to convince our girlfriend that time is repeating itself and then try to escape the loop. Okay, that’s all I’ll say. But I enjoyed this one, and I think you might as well.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/twelve-minutes/id1608097361
8) Relic Hunters: Rebels (Twin-stick/Shooter) - Landscape
I actually liked the twin-stick looter-shooter RPG Relic Hunters: Rebels more than I thought I would.
Playing as one of several fun characters with unique traits, we attempt to get through every single level by defeating the enemies, grabbing as much loot as possible, and gradually upgrading the 6 stats for each of the many different weapons.
It also has a bit of retro feel to it, so if you’re into that, definitely take it for a spin.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/relic-hunters-rebels/id1605236950
9) Skies of Chaos (Bullet Hell/Flying) - Portrait
The Bullet Hell genre has always been a favorite of mine, so I immediately fell in love when I tried Skies of Chaos - both because of its polished art-style, and the challenging boss fights.
The game features over 50 levels that reward us with resources used to upgrade and heavily customize the different parts of our airplane, effectively making it easier to complete the next challenges.
In my notes from when I played these games, literally wrote “holy shit, this is good!”. And I stand by that. It’s difficult to explain, but playing this game just feels awesome, and it’s rare to find a game of this quality these days. So I can’t recommend it enough.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/skies-of-chaos/id1612698180
10) POINPY (Arcade/Platformer) - Portrait
POINPY is a new game from the developers of Downwell, which, ironically, is a game all about moving upward instead of downward.
It’s basically an arcade action game where we swipe, aim, and release to jump around a vertical level with the objective of collecting and feeding fruits to the huge monster chasing us. Oh, and we also have to avoid the many enemies trying to kill us.
The gameplay is great fun, there are several characters with unique traits to unlock, and if you like arcade platformers, there’s a high chance you’ll enjoy this one.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/netflix-poinpy/id1615093407
11) Desta: The Memories Between (Dodgeball/Turn-based/Roguelike) - Landscape
The developers of Monument Valley also released their newest game, Desta, recently, and it’s essentially a turn-based dodgeball roguelike wrapped in an interesting story about dreams and regrets with great voice-acting.
But even if you don’t care about the story, the team-based dodgeball gameplay, where we have to work with our childhood friends to defeat dream-versions of people from our real life, is good fun.
It’s easily one of the most unique games I’m gonna mention today, and I enjoyed it. Although I do agree with some of the reviews that it could just have been a story-based game instead of a roguelike.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/desta-the-memories-between/id1599584290
12) Tomb Raider Reloaded (Archero-like) - Portrait
A game that ISN’T actually exclusive to Netflix, though, is Tomb Raider Reloaded, which is basically an Archero clone with a few new twists to the gameplay and some really badass boss fights.
The free version of this game is full of ads and pay-to-win monetization, but the Netflix version has none of that - and it actually turns it into one of the better Archero alternatives.
There’s lots to do in the game, and although they kept the energy system, you can easily play for an hour at a time without running out. So if you liked Archero, it’s worth checking out.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/tomb-raider-reloaded-netflix/id6444630059
13) Into The Dead 2 (ShooteZombie) - Landscape
Another game that also still exists outside of Netflix as a pay-to-win game is Into The Dead 2, which is a zombie shooter where our character automatically runs forward while we move left, right, and shoot to deal with the zombies attacking us.
The gameplay is split into a neat story-based campaign, with lots of weapons and companion pets to unlock and upgrade using the gold we earn.
With all the ads and in-app purchases removed, the gameplay is great fun, and I think many of you will enjoy this as a more casual version of a traditional zombie FPS.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/into-the-dead-2-unleashed/id1607178247
14) Moonlighter (SimulatoDungeon Crawler) - Landscape
Moonlighter is another great, and despite Netflix removing the previous stand-alone paid version of the game (which REALLY wasn’t nice!....), I’m including it here because the game itself is definitely enjoyable.
It’s essentially a fun mix of an action RPG and a shop simulator, which means we go on dungeon runs to gather goods and items that we then try to guess the appropriate price for and put up for sale in our shop. And then we repeat that while gradually growing stronger.
As someone who used to spend entire days on Runescape’s Grand Exchange, I got pretty hooked on this gameplay loop.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/netflix-moonlighteid1612148433
15) Asphalt Xtreme (Racing) - Landscape
You might know that this used to be a pay-to-win game, but with all of that garbage removed, the core gameplay really shines, and it’s actually one of my personal go-to racing games right now.
The art-style has held up surprisingly well and there is lots of content to explore, so it’s definitely worth a try if you haven’t played it yet.
App Store https://apps.apple.com/us/app/asphalt-xtreme/id1590574622
____ GREAT CASUAL GAMES:
GOOD FOR THE GENRE:
- Mahjong Solitaire
- Cats & Soup
- Puzzle Gods
DECENT / OKAY’ISH GAMES:
- Valiant Hearts
- Exploding Kittens
- Kentucky Route Zero
- Hello Kitty Happiness Parade
- SpongeBob: Get Cooking
- True Story
- Scriptic Crime Stories
- Before Your Eyes
P2W GONE F2P BADLY:
- Dragon Up
- Rival Pirates
- Narcos: Cartel Wars
- Stranger Things: Puzzle Tales
- Country Friends
- Nailed It!
- Wild Things
- Flutter Butterflies
submitted by NimbleThor
to iosgaming [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 11:16 GobySec_ Goby Exploits Memory Shellcode Technology Details [Technical Edition]
| || | submitted by GobySec_ to u/GobySec_ [link] [comments]
This is the third article in Goby's community memory shellcode series. The first article, "Ghost King in Shell - JAVAWEB Memory Shellcode [Cognitive]" introduced the history and classification of JavaWeb memory shellcode technology, and introduced common JavaWeb memory shellcode technology from a cognitive perspective; the second article, "Using Goby to Inject Memory Shellcode with Deserialization Vulnerabilities [Exploit]" mainly introduced how to combine memory shellcode with vulnerabilities to enable Goby to inject memory shellcode with one-click through deserialization vulnerabilities, and integrate with Goby's PoC and extension system. Users only need to click a few buttons to complete the injection of vulnerabilities with one-click.
This article mainly introduces some technical details used in the process of using Goby to inject memory shellcode with one-click through deserialization vulnerabilities, based on the first two articles. Of course, users do not need to know these details during the injection process using Goby PoC, but understanding and learning the technology helps to grasp some common ideas.
This article is mainly divided into three parts: "Exploiting Pre-Vulnerabilities", "Generating Memory Shellcode", and "Using Memory Shellcode", sharing some technical points and details or pitfalls related to Goby, and welcome everyone to discuss together.
Here is a brief demonstration of the use of some related technologies. The following video demonstrates the use of Goby to inject a Filter-type memory shellcode with one-click through deserialization, and carry false information through a custom URLClassLoader to avoid security personnel's investigation. The purpose is achieved by clearing the log without a trace.
> The one-click Memory shellcode injection feature of Goby can be used for free in the community version.
> [Get version](https://gobies.org
02 Pre-vulnerability Exploitation
First, let's talk about the pre-vulnerability exploitation. As mentioned in previous articles, from the perspective of practical vulnerability exploitation and weaponized development, we tend to inject a memory shellcode with one click during the vulnerability exploitation process, rather than obtaining a JSP webshell first and then converting it into a memory shellcode. Therefore, here we need to consider how to directly execute the implantation action of the memory shellcode during the vulnerability exploitation process.
2.1 Dynamic Loading and Class Initialization
In most current vulnerability exploits, if you want to execute complex malicious attack logic, you usually use a new URLClassLoader, the current thread's class loader, or a custom class loader to load and initialize malicious class bytecode. In different exploitation scenarios, you can choose different class loaders according to the situation, but sometimes you cannot choose and need to adjust according to the situation:
- Use a new URLClassLoader. If not specified, the system class loader is used as the parent ClassLoader by default, which is the AppClassLoader.
- Use the context class loader of the current thread, generally obtained using `Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader()`.
- Create a custom class loader, generally by defining a method for loading classes through bytecode, which is like encapsulating a public `defineClass` method.
- In some exploitation scenarios, it is not possible to customize ClassLoader, such as using BCEL ClassLoader for exploitation.
When using different ClassLoaders to load malicious classes in different situations, different problems will be faced:
- When using the context class loader of the current thread or cannot control the class loader, there may be a situation where the same class name cannot be loaded twice and additional processing is required.
- When using special ClassLoaders such as BCEL ClassLoader, due to the problem of loading across classes, some classes and interfaces need to be accessed and called through pure reflection, which requires a relatively large amount of physical work.
When dynamically loading classes during vulnerability exploitation, it is generally necessary to manually break the parent delegation mechanism and inject the malicious class into the system. Class initialization is closely related to class loading. Usually, in malicious code, some initialization malicious logic will be written, which can generally be written in the static statement block or public parameterless constructor:
- The static statement block is executed once when the class is loaded and only executed once during its lifecycle.
- The public parameterless constructor is called during class initialization, and it is called each time a new class instance is created.
Therefore, you can choose a class loader according to the specific situation and place the malicious logic in an appropriate location.
2.2 Echo and Memory Shellcode
After the Goby deserialization implantation extension went online, I enhanced and corrected the exploitation of deserialization vulnerabilities in the vulnerability library. Friends familiar with Goby may know that Goby's detection of vulnerability exploitation is divided into PoC and EXP. When facing native Java deserialization, the original detection and exploitation procedures were:
- PoC uses URLDNS combined with Goby's built-in dnslog platform GodServer for vulnerability detection.
- EXP uses the bytecode of YSOSERIAL, dynamically replaces the hex value of the command execution part, and writes the command execution.
The above logic is used to detect vulnerabilities, which is the way most people detect deserialization vulnerabilities. Technically, there is no problem with this detection method, but in practice, the following problems may be encountered:
- Due to unstable network or DNSLOG platform, it may not be possible to receive DNSLOG or DNSLOG may have a long delay.
- Vulnerability exploitation only performs command execution, and it is often impossible to determine whether the vulnerability exploitation is successful or what the result of the vulnerability execution is.
- In a scenario where there is no outbound network connectivity, it is not possible to perform a reverse shell or execute more advanced actions. In terms of practicality for real-world scenarios, its usability is quite poor.
Therefore, to address the usability issues in practical scenarios, all subsequent updates to the vulnerability exploitation PoCs have adopted echo-based techniques to return the command execution results in the response. As for the exploits (EXP), they are directly injected into the memory as a shellcode, saving a lot of intermediate processes. https://preview.redd.it/om35mjpa8uqa1.png?width=3526&format=png&auto=webp&s=50d20516faf1de88f808f0fd6d293214a179cd96
2.3 In constructing an echo
It involves locating the critical request, searching memory, and other technical points. And to inject a memory shellcode, it is necessary to prepare a highly available memory shellcode for the vulnerability environment. With these technical supports, the problems mentioned above can be solved without the need for third-party dnslog, OOB, etc., directly conducting high-precision detection and utilization of vulnerabilities.
There are many types of vulnerabilities, and there are also many types that can provide arbitrary code execution, such as Java native deserialization vulnerabilities, Fastjson/Jackson/XStream deserialization vulnerabilities, SpEL/Ognl expression injection, etc. However, many situations require additional utilization methods to complete the vulnerability utilization process. Taking advantage of the native deserialization as an example, some modifications of the utilization chain are listed to directly inject memory shellcode.
- BeanShell chain, although Bsh supports all Java syntax and many loose writing methods, is ultimately a script language parser. If these writing methods are used or arrays are used in the script, related implementation classes' methods may be called during the deserialization process, and Interpreter objects may be used, which could result in a NullPointerException. Therefore, it is still possible to use ScriptEngineManager to parse JS and execute the memory shellcode.
- In the original version, `C3P0` chain used PoolBackedDataSource for remote class loading to exploit vulnerabilities. However, C3P0 can also use Tomcat's getObjectInstance method to call the eval method of ELProcessor for expression injection. This allows injection of memory shellcode through EL expressions, and can also be achieved through other methods such as Groovy, SnakeYaml, etc.
Here are several techniques that link the deserialization exploit chain to memory shell. There are also many other exploit situations that can be “saved by the bell”. Considering the length of the article, further elaboration on these techniques will not be discussed here.
03 Generating In-Memory Shellcode
After discussing the direction of vulnerability exploitation, we will now discuss some technical details involved in generating in-memory shellcode.
3.1 Dynamic Code Generation Techniques
Considering different vulnerability exploitation points, different exploitation scenarios and requirements, and different personnel's habits and preferences, the content of in-memory shellcode cannot be fixed in practical environments and needs to be dynamically generated based on various configurations.
Therefore, we use javassist to dynamically generate and write malicious bytecode of in-memory shellcode
. In the process of preparing in-memory shellcode, we will face some requirements:
- The exploitation method of the vulnerability is fixed, such as command execution, commonly used tools such as Behinder, Godzilla, or self-developed webshell interaction tools, and most of them are reusable custom vulnerability exploitation methods;
- In-memory shellcode can customize URL and password, in addition to the common AES key, additional authentication mechanisms can also be set;
- Any in-memory shellcode technique can be freely selected, and any exploitation method can be used to quickly generate dynamically.
Therefore, I finally abstract the key logic into a same method, whose first two parameters are Request and Response objects. No matter it is command execution, Behinder, Godzilla, etc., their own logic can be injected into this method.
For different middleware, due to different encapsulation and implementation, extra judgment and processing are performed before entering the key logic to make the final processing logic consistent.
For example, below is the core logic of Behinder: https://preview.redd.it/wkwgl98c9uqa1.png?width=2550&format=png&auto=webp&s=8628569046170ba7c82fb2b32312dc4de63083fe
Here is the core logic of Godzilla: https://preview.redd.it/ee6idwph9uqa1.png?width=2656&format=png&auto=webp&s=2422c46fe77be58d980a2ecc9b6b47ef6c84ed88
Here is the logic of command execution: https://preview.redd.it/pxyqf7gk9uqa1.png?width=2632&format=png&auto=webp&s=be1eb3f2c94be2d7ea2c11cf152d66c47637b325
After determining the parameters to be used, bytecode can be assembled based on different Memory shellcode types and exploitation methods, with critical methods inserted into malicious classes in sequence, ultimately forming a complete memory shell.
3.2 ClassLoader Issues
As mentioned before, when dynamically loading and initializing a malicious class, it is important to consider the ClassLoader selection. This remains true after the Memory shellcode is loaded, as ClassLoader issues still need to be carefully considered.
In the first case, as the Memory shellcode file itself, the instance should generally be placed in a key position for processing routes, such as in a Map member variable of the global context. In this case, it is necessary to pass a reference to an instance, and register an instance of the shell's own object in a critical position within the system during malicious class initialization.
However, there are exceptions, such as in the Struts2 framework, where the key position stores the class name rather than the class instance. When processing routes, if a mapping is found, the class instance is dynamically created and its execute method is called for processing. Therefore, when injecting a malicious memory shell, the class name and route mapping should not be the only considerations, as the memory shell's own class should also be loaded into the critical context, allowing it to find our injected malicious class during class instantiation.
In terms of exploitation methods, in addition to command execution and feedback, the key logic of a Memory shellcode is still achieved through the transmission of class bytecode. In addition to the previously mentioned URLClassLoader, custom ClassLoader, and thread context ClassLoader, there are still many tricks that can be used, such as:
- Registering a class using java.lang.reflect.Proxy#defineClass0()
- Registering a class directly in the JVM using sun.misc.Unsafe#defineAnonymousClass()
- Using some wrapper classes that may call some uncommon ClassLoaders, such as jdk.nashorn.internal.runtime.ScriptLoader#installClass() and com.sun.naming.internal.VersionHelper#loadClass()
In addition to the above, JavaSec group members have shared some other methods:
3.3 Exploitation Methods
For Memory shellcode exploitation methods, the three most common types are command execution and feedback, and the Behinder and Godzilla shells, each with their own advantages:
- Command execution and feedback: Simple command execution with feedback visible.
- Behinder and Godzilla shells: Both provide advanced features that can be selected as needed.
In addition to the typical web shell exploitation methods, the latest trend is the infiltration of tunneling shells. After obtaining a web shell, attackers typically use this machine as a jump point for further intranet penetration. This requires a clear tunneling flow.
Previously, the common approach was to upload a traffic forwarding tool such as FRP to the target server and use this tool for traffic forwarding. If the network layer is not fully port mapped, this can also involve port reuse and other techniques.
However, with a memory shell, a tunneling shell can be easily created with one click, and the appropriate client can be used for direct connection, achieving a true "one-stop" solution. https://preview.redd.it/yees98yz9uqa1.png?width=1432&format=png&auto=webp&s=628b9901b2d139d5320139152274062f491ed44a
3.4 Agent No File
The AgentNoFile technology implemented by Master rebeyond provides us with the ability to directly call the JVMTI interface without the need to provide Agent.jar or Agent.so
. With this capability, we can inject Agent-type memory shellcode without file landing.
On Linux platform, shellcode is executed by modifying /proc/self/mem. On Windows platform, shellcode is implanted into the process with PID -1 through Java, so as to construct JPLISAgent object and obtain all capabilities of calling Java Agent.
In the BeichenDream's Kcon2021Code project, similar code with this technology idea is also shared.
In the implementation of memory shellcode, a Javassist dependent jar is injected into the target environment without landing, and the target critical class is dynamically modified to inject malicious logic, which realizes the dynamic modification of Agent shellcode. For example, the following figure shows the logic of hooking doFilter method of ApplicationFilterChain, injecting Behinder memory shellcode, and dumping class from the server. https://preview.redd.it/7l4172y1auqa1.png?width=3468&format=png&auto=webp&s=3677d0f849286b6622da39e2ee7267d904d9a2a8
04 Usage of Memory Shellcode
The problem of exploiting vulnerabilities to directly inject memory shellcodes and the generation and utilization methods of memory shellcodes have been resolved. The next problem to be addressed is the issues encountered during the use of memory shellcodes.
As mentioned in previous articles, the main purpose of the Memory shellcode technology is to combat the problem of security protection devices detecting and alarming against landed files. Therefore, since its inception, Memory shellcode technology has faced and shouldered the responsibility and mission of confronting various protection capabilities.
4.1 Bypassing Security Protections
The first challenge is **bypassing traffic-side devices**. This is actually the traffic characteristics of the communication protocol between the WebShell management side and the memory shell. Since AES encryption and decryption are commonly used, with a small number of cases using DES encryption and decryption, and there are regular behaviors, such as sending several packets when connecting to the WebShell, there are some means to detect webshell connections based on these two factors. Therefore, whether it is the Behinder or Godzilla, if they have not been customized, their basic traffic characteristics will be detected.
However, basically everyone has the habit of customization, so the traffic layer characteristics are still not easy to be uniformly protected, and the latest Behinder client already supports custom communication protocol encryption and decryption programs. This allows attackers to disguise Behinder traffic as similar to business data traffic, such as Restful API return data, or similar base64 image resource return data.
The second challenge is **bypassing host-level protections**. At the host level, there may be some host-level defenses such as EDR devices, which may monitor Java process calls to system resources. However, most of the time, it is almost impossible for this level of defense to determine whether Java-level operations are sensitive operations.
Finally, there is **bypassing Java-level protections**. At the Java level, there may be some RASP products or custom security rules defenses. These defenses intercept suspicious behaviors based on stack or behavior, and hook at the position where some sensitive functions are executed.
At this point, we can bypass these defenses through reflection. Whether it is to call deeper code or even native methods through reflection, or to reflectively obtain objects that encapsulate specific methods in the system for execution, the purpose is to disrupt the stack or behavior call chain, making Java-level defense unable to determine whether you are performing malicious operations or system behaviors, thus bypassing the detection logic.
For example, bypassing command execution defense through reflection to call native methods: https://preview.redd.it/s2akxi85auqa1.jpg?width=2320&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1a84dae44723fba626af08b2c509a783df28be41
Or use messy reflection to make the call chain difficult to trace: https://preview.redd.it/sdx9g37gauqa1.png?width=2588&format=png&auto=webp&s=b92d429a2196af1b0647347b431bfd6899c77da3
Creating malicious classes using APIs like unsafe can also bypass certain security defenses: https://preview.redd.it/5wfyjklhauqa1.png?width=2486&format=png&auto=webp&s=d07b6289921110f5511897df95d3c4888f07c786
As mentioned in previous memory shellcode articles, many tools have provided detection methods to scan specific locations to check for the presence of memory shellcode. At this time, the check will include some dimension judgments. Similarly, we need to perform certain processing on these dimensions to prevent detection, for example:
- Detection of malicious class names and package names: For some defense measures, loading of known malicious package names and class names will be prohibited. Therefore, we use dynamic splicing and generation of malicious class package names to confuse the defense system or administrator.
- Detection of whether files are written to disk from ClassLoader: The detection logic can be bypassed by using a custom ClassLoader to carry false information or loading malicious classes using the system class loader with an empty class loader for the malicious class.
- Detection of critical positions in the system: Some detection tools can obtain information about critical positions and assist in manual inspection. For example, some tools obtain all Filter-type memory shellcode in the system and display them. At this time, it is possible to evade detection by exploring unconventional memory shellcode. As mentioned in the PPT I shared earlier about JavaWeb memory shellcode, all components that use the chain of responsibility design pattern in the web request processing process can be used as directions for exploring and utilizing memory shellcode. Therefore, it is not difficult to explore a new type of memory shellcode in various web middleware.
- Many tools offer the ability to dump the class, allowing for troubleshooting by dumping the class bytecode in memory. Therefore, it is possible to modify the cache of relevant information in the InstanceKlass data structure of the Java class in the JVM, such as _cached_class_file, to deceive and hide by making the dumped class not contain dangerous code.
- Some RASPs also use redefineClasses to set the critical method content of malicious classes and functions to empty, in order to clear the memory shellcode in the running system. At this point, it is possible to make it fail by modifying the function modifiers, adding member variables, methods, etc. of the malicious class, as redefineClasses does not allow changes in class structure and signatures.
- Currently, most of the methods for detecting and defending against memory shellcode are implemented through Java Agent technology. Therefore, preventing new Agent injections is also a key strategy for preventing detection. As mentioned in the first article, blocking the communication between JVM processes by deleting the java pid file and preventing the loading of subsequent ClassFileTransformers can prevent the loading of other Java Agents and prevent detection.
4.3 Disappear Without a Trace
First of all, since memory shellcode have reached the point of not leaving files behind, is there anything else that can be done to hide themselves again? The answer is yes.
That is, clearing the access logs of middleware. When making access requests, middleware records logs, which are usually used as the basis for subsequent reviews and emergency responses. If access logs can be cleared during memory shellcode access, wouldn't that be anonymous browsing?
With the idea in place, the execution is simple, which is to find the component responsible for logging in the middleware and clear it. Taking Tomcat as an example.
The final issue is the issue of persistence, which needs to consider whether the injection of memory shellcode can be restored after service restart or even operating system restart:
- For Java, Java shutdown hook can be used for landing and other operations of memory shellcode. If the target environment is Tomcat, JSP files can be written in the resource directory of Jar package, etc.;
- If the target environment may be killed by -9, a "daemon process" can be started to monitor the Java process on the server;
- For operating system restart, critical malicious operations can be registered as timed tasks in advance to achieve persistence.
Since these actions are an extension of memory shellcode technology and may involve tampering and landing of Jar packages and resource files in order to achieve persistence, which is somewhat contrary to the original intention of using memory shellcode, this part will not be discussed further, and we look forward to more elegant ideas.
The above section briefly lists some technical issues and solutions encountered in practical use of memory shellcode technology. After researching and resolving the above techniques, there should be no problem in using memory shellcode quickly in practice.
Although we are discussing JavaWeb memory shellcode technology, it can be seen that the thinking and technology of the countermeasures have already extended beyond the Java layer to the native layer and memory level. This is still a drop in the bucket in practical use. In actual use, due to differences in operating systems, middleware versions, JDK distributions and versions, security restrictions, security protection and other complex situations, there will be various difficulties. Therefore, more research and debugging, and accumulation of ideas can enable efficient and fast use of memory shellcode in practical use.
In the face of memory shellcode technology, it is superficially a technical confrontation, but in fact it is a confrontation between people and people, thinking and thinking. I throw out some ideas here, hoping to inspire more ingenious ideas, and welcome everyone to discuss.
[All articles in the memory shellcode series](https://github.com/gobysec/Memory-Shell
2023.03.30 11:13 bedclothesstray This guy uses an RNG to select which game from the PlayStation store to review, and this is my favourite review of his so far. [Frickin' Good Video]
2023.03.30 10:50 SilenceOfTheMareep Has GW done this anywhere else?
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The Fyrelayers Battlesmith, which was previously available separately, is now exclusive to the Vanguard box. Have GW done this with anything else, where a previously separately available mini is then upsold as a box exclusive. submitted by SilenceOfTheMareep to Warhammer [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 10:47 antdbAsiaInfo The CheckPoint of AntDB-M’s Design
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For database, users' concerns often differ in different application scenarios, such as: read/write latency, throughput, scalability, reliability, availability, etc.. For some concerns, it can be effectively enhanced by means of application system architecture, hardware devices, etc. But the problem brought is the complex system architecture and the consequent difficulties in operation and maintenance, upgrading, fault location, availability reduction and a series of other problems. Some business scenarios (such as in finance, telecom and other fields) put forward higher requirements on the database, such as reliability (e.g. RPO of 0) and availability (e.g. 99.999%, i.e. the failure time cannot exceed 5.26 minutes throughout the year). In a distributed environment, it will face more problems such as data loss and service unavailability caused by host, network, storage, power, and other factors. These problems are extraordinarily labor-intensive and material-intensive at all stages of business system design, implementation, operation and maintenance, upgrade, etc.
AntDB-M (AntDB in-memory engine) adopts many effective designs to improve the reliability and availability of services, provide effective data services, simplify the architecture of business systems, and allow users to focus more on business systems. One of the many designs of AntDB-M is CheckPoint. The design goal of CheckPoint is to take a snapshot of the data in the database without affecting the business, and that snapshot can be used for quick recovery of the service. The design principles are efficiency and simplicity.
1. Brief description of functions
The CheckPoint function of AntDB-M includes trigger at any time and at designated time. One trigger will CheckPoint all tables. CheckPoint does not allow concurrency, and new requests will fail before the former is completed. If there are many tables, concurrent processing can be enabled, and the maximum amount of concurrency is the number of tables. Upon success, two types of files are output in the specified directory: 1) data files, one for each table, and 2) a table list file containing the transaction number that initiated the CheckPoint, and a list of all tables.
CheckPoint files can be used for quick database loading. The table list file can be edited to select the tables that need to be loaded.
Figure 1: Brief description of functions
2. Design implementation
The following section describes how CheckPoint was designed to achieve its design goals and requirements.
2.1 No business impact
CheckPoint cannot block normal access to database services during its execution. This means that the data is always changing during CheckPoint. In order not to block the modification of the data, as well as to export the consistency of the data, CheckPoint state and table caching is introduced here to solve this problem.
Figure 2: Design implementation - no business impact
2.1.1 CheckPoint state
AntDB-M has three states related to CheckPoint: 1) data export; 2) exported file processing; 3) export completion; The state "1 - Data Export" means that the in-memory data is being exported to a file. This state is very important for exporting data consistency. The following section describes how to guarantee data consistency by referring to this status.
2.1.2 AntDB-M table cache
AntDB-M is divided into two parts in data management: 1) table cache; 2) table data (including table metadata). Normally, all modifications to the data will only modify "2-Table Data". The table cache is only used when AntDB-M performs CheckPoint and is in the "1-Data Export" state.
2.1.3 Export process and data consistency assurance
AntDB-M follows the following steps to export CheckPoint and ensure the consistency of the exported data.
- Status setting
When performing CheckPoint, first set the CheckPoint status of AntDB-M service to "1 - Data Export". Once this state is entered, AntDB-M will enable special processing of table cache.
- Data backup of uncommitted transaction
After entering "1-Data Export", before starting to export data, save a copy of the original data of all records related to the current uncommitted transactions to the table cache. This data in the table cache ensures that the data of uncommitted transactions will not be exported, which is a guarantee of data consistency.
- Table cache modification
Once CheckPoint enters the "1-Data Export" state, all data additions, deletions, and modifications will modify the table cache and table data at the same time. The table cache action is different for different operation types. The operation logic of table data remains unchanged.
Record the record ID of the newly inserted data in the table cache (the record ID is described later).
Record the record ID of the deleted data in the table cache, along with the record data.
Record the record ID of the updated data in the table cache, along with the record data. For multiple updates, only the first update goes into the table cache.
2.1.4 Exporting table data to a file
For table data, the full amount will be exported to a file, except for the newly created data blocks during CheckPoint. Since the service doesn’t block waiting, the table data will be updated continuously during this process, and it is not concerned here whether the data in the data block is consistent or not. The consistency of the data will be handled in the subsequent step 5.
2.1.5. Update files by using cache
As you can see from points 2 and 3 above, all changes are recorded in the table cache during the CheckPoint status of "1 - Data Export". After the table data is exported to the file, the file is updated with the records from the table cache, thus ensuring data consistency. That is, the CheckPoint file is a snapshot of the data at the point in time when CheckPoint entered the "1-Data Export" state. Here the update may exist randomly written, but the CheckPoint process is very fast, randomly written data volume is not large, the impact can be basically ignored.
File update rules:
- insert: delete
- update: recover with the original record
- delete: recover with the deleted record
2.2 Efficient and simple
CheckPoint is efficient in two ways: 1) efficient in exporting; and 2) efficient in importing. The following section describes the design to achieve simplicity and efficiency.
Figure 3: Design implementation - efficient and simple
2.2.1 Full export
AntDB-M's CheckPoint is a full export, which is very different from MySql innodb's checkpoint. Here are a few aspects to introduce why full export is adopted.
As an in-memory database, all data is stored in memory, so you don't need to consider too much memory consumption (only for the data itself), so you don't need to consider exporting data to file in real time because the data occupies memory.
- High availability guarantee
As a highly available distributed database, its high availability adopts the multi-copy mechanism. Therefore, high availability can be achieved through multiple services. Exporting data is mainly to reduce the high loading time when the service restarts and the master-slave data synchronization time. Therefore, CheckPoint files are not the main means of high availability. That is, the CheckPoint file export time is not required to be too real-time, and the lower export frequency has little impact on high availability.
For data import and export, the factor that affects the efficiency the most is the read and write performance of the disk. For the disk, adopting sequential read and write offers the highest efficiency. Therefore, for data, direct read and write is of the highest efficiency, in stead of format conversion in memory and between files. If you perform incremental synchronization, there are either frequent random reads and writes, or complex conversions and file storage space occupation. Both of them have a great negative impact on the efficiency and complexity of the system.
The memory structure of AntDB-M is designed to be very compact and memory address independent. Therefore, data can be exported and imported without conversion. The efficiency is very high, and the time of one export can be controlled within acceptable time.
Combining the above points, it is more efficient and cost effective to adopt full export.
The memory structure of AntDB-M is very compact, which avoids the waste of data space and the amount of exported data without additional management space except for the necessary data storage space. Another efficient design for importing and exporting is address-independent. This avoids a lot of address mapping conversions during import and export.
The record ID is a very important design in the memory structure. All data records have a unique record ID. The memory address of the record can be obtained by simple and efficient modulo and remainder operations on the record ID. This allows the storage of table data to be address-independent, ensuring that no address translation is required for import and export.
Each table in AntDB-M has its own independent tablespace, and each tablespace takes three levels of management. The first and second levels are address spaces that exist only in memory, and the third level is address-independent data blocks. When exporting, it is sufficient to export the data blocks. When importing, the three levels of memory spaces are applied in memory and the relationship between the three levels is established in accordance with the order of the memory blocks, which is a small amount of data and fast.
Since the contents of the data block are address-independent, the entire block is written to the file when exporting, and the data in the file is read directly into the corresponding memory block when importing. This greatly improves the efficiency of exporting and importing.
The management data of the idle address of the data block is also recorded on the data block itself, no additional management unit is needed. All idle records form a bidirectional chain table and only the last idle position needs to be recorded additionally. In addition, an additional 1 byte is reserved for each row of records to identify the current record status.
With the above points, the management of data blocks is compact and concise, and at the same very efficient.
Figure 4: Multi-level management of tablespace
2.2.3 Overflow columns
For variable-length columns, AntDB-M manages them separately as overflow columns, with their own memory space and structure. Only fixed-length columns are stored in the data block, as well as the length and record ID of overflow columns.
The structure design of overflow column is similar to that of data block, which also keeps multi-level and address-independent. Also, to save memory and be efficient, the overflow column has a fixed length per row, which may vary from column to column. An extra record ID is kept for each row, and when the length exceeds 1 row length, record the location where the next row of data is saved.
AntDB-M supports two kinds of indexes: 1) hash; 2) btree; only the index metadata will be exported when CheckPoint exports. The data will be reconstructed in memory.
2.2.5 CheckPoint file structure
CheckPoint eventually generates a separate file for each table, which is roughly divided into 5 parts. 1) table metadata; 2) overflow columns; 2) data blocks; 4) column metadata; and 5) indexes;
Figure 5: CheckPoint export file structure
3. Constraints and recommendations
Figure 6: Constraints and recommendations
3.1 DDL constraints
DDL changes are prohibited during CheckPoint because DDL causes changes to table metadata and data. It will greatly affect the memory overhead and the complexity of the system. The frequency of DDL operation is generally low and the time is controllable, and the frequency of CheckPoint is also low and the time is controllable. Therefore, DDL operations can be limited and have little impact on the business system.
3.2 Storage requirements
When importing and exporting, there are very high read and write performance requirements for disks. Therefore higher performance disks are required, preferably SSD disks.
3.3 Stagger export
Assuming a disk write speed of 400M/S, it takes about 256 seconds to export 100G of data. Therefore when deploying multiple services on one host, you can stagger the export to avoid long export time for a single service. Because of the export process, a copy of the data will be put into the table cache to avoid causing memory pressure.
2023.03.30 10:46 Appliance_Repair_CAN We’ll tell you How-to Microwave Repair Mississauga by Appliance Repair star
Today we’ll tell you How-to Microwave Repair Mississauga Appliance star. Microwaves have become a staple appliance in many households, and it’s hard to imagine life without them. They provide us with a quick and easy way to heat up food or defrost frozen meals. However, like any appliance, microwaves can experience problems and require repair. If you’re in Mississauga and experiencing issues with your microwave, you might be wondering where to turn. In this article, we’ll explore some of the reasons why your microwave might require repair and what to look for in a Microwave Repair Mississauga service.
Microwaves have become a staple appliance in many households, and it’s hard to imagine life without them. They provide us with a quick and easy way to heat up food or defrost frozen meals. However, like any device, microwaves can experience problems and require repair. If you’re in Mississauga and experiencing issues with your microwave, you might be wondering where to turn. In this article, we’ll explore some of the reasons why your microwave might require repair and what to look for in a Microwave Fix service.
With us you can get microwave Repair Mississauga quickly.
One of the most common reasons why oven require repair is due to a faulty or damaged door switch. The door switch is responsible for ensuring that the microwave door is securely closed before it can start working. If the switch is faulty, the microwave may not turn on, or it may continue to run even when the door is open. This can be dangerous, as it can cause fires or other hazards. A professional Microwave Repair Mississauga service can diagnose and fix faulty door switches to ensure your oven is safe to use.
Another common issue with oven is a malfunctioning control panel. The control panel is responsible for allowing you to select the cooking time and power level for your oven. If the control panel is not functioning correctly, you may not be able to use your oven at all. A Microwave Repair Mississauga service can help diagnose and fix control panel issues to get your oven back up and running.
Microwave Repair Mississauga services can also help with issues related to the oven heating element. If your oven is not heating up food correctly or taking longer than usual to cook meals, it could be due to a faulty heating element. A professional repair can diagnose and repair any issues related to the heating element, including replacing it if necessary.
One of the most important things to consider when choosing a Microwave Repair is their level of experience and expertise. You want to make sure that the technicians working on your oven have the necessary training and knowledge to diagnose and repair any issues. It’s also important to look for a service that offers a warranty on their fix, so you can have peace of mind knowing that your oven is covered if any further issues arise.
When searching for a Microwave Repair Mississauga, it’s a good idea to read reviews and check their ratings from previous customers.
Microwave Repair Mississauga and self-help
Provide you with some general tips on how to repair a microwave in Mississauga:
- Check the power source: Ensure that the microwave is properly plugged in and the outlet is functioning correctly. If the outlet is not working, try plugging the microwave into a different outlet.
- Check the fuse: If the microwave is not turning on, it may be due to a blown fuse. Locate the fuse and check if it needs to be replaced.
- Check the door switch: If the microwave turns on but does not heat up, it may be due to a faulty door switch. Check if the door switch is working correctly and replace it if necessary.
- Check the magnetron: The magnetron is responsible for generating the microwaves that heat up the food. If the magnetron is faulty, the microwave may not heat up. Check if the magnetron is functioning correctly and replace it if necessary.
- Seek professional help: If you are unsure about how to repair your microwave or if the problem is more complex, it is best to seek professional help from a certified technician in Mississauga. They will be able to diagnose and fix the issue for you.
When searching for a Microwave Repair Mississauga service, it’s a good idea to read reviews and check their ratings from previous customers.
ApplianceStar Company is a reputable device Fix and installation service provider located in Toronto and area. The firm has been serving the community for many years, providing top-quality repair services to customers with faulty appliances. ApplianceStar Company specializes in the fix and installation of all kinds of equipments, including refrigerators, ovens, dishwashers, washing machines, dryers, and much more.
The firm has a team of skilled and experienced technicians who are dedicated to providing customers with fast and reliable repair services. These professionals have the knowledge and expertise to diagnose and fix any issues with appliances quickly, allowing customers to continue using their appliances without any further problems. ApplianceStar firm understands the inconvenience and frustration that comes with having a malfunctioning appliance, and that’s why the firm is committed to providing prompt and efficient fix services.
One of the main services provided by ApplianceStar Company is device fix. If your device has broken down, the firm team of experts can help you get it back up and running in no time. They can diagnose and fix any issues with your equipment, whether it’s a refrigerator that’s not cooling properly, an oven that’s not heating up, a dishwasher that’s not cleaning dishes correctly, or any other device problem. The technicians have experience with all brands of appliances, so they can fix any device, regardless of the make or model.
ApplianceStar Company also offers equipment installation services. If you’ve just purchased a new device, the firm technicians can install it for you, ensuring that it’s properly connected and functioning correctly. The installation process can be tricky, especially for complex appliances such as refrigerators and dishwashers, but ApplianceStar Company has the expertise to handle any installation project.
Another service offered by ApplianceStar Company is preventative maintenance. The firm technicians can perform routine maintenance on your appliances to ensure that they continue functioning correctly and avoid any potential breakdowns. Preventative maintenance can help extend the lifespan of your devices, saving you money in the long run by avoiding costly fix or replacements.
ApplianceStar firm is committed to providing excellent customer service. The company’s technicians are friendly, professional, and knowledgeable, and they always strive to provide customers with the best possible experience. The firm also offers flexible scheduling options, so you can choose a time that works best for you to have your equipments Fixed or installed.
In addition to fix and installation services, ApplianceStar Company also offers equipment parts. If you need a replacement part for your device, the firm can help you find the right part and order it for you. The firm has access to a wide range of parts for all kinds of appliances, so they can help you find the exact part you need.
ApplianceStar Company is fully licensed and insured, providing customers with peace of mind knowing that they are working with a reputable and reliable firm. The firm also offers a warranty on all of their fix services, ensuring that customers are fully satisfied with the work done on their equipments.
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In conclusion, ApplianceStar team is a top-quality device fix and installation service provider in Toronto and area. With a team of skilled and experienced technicians, the team provides fast and reliable fix services for all kinds of equipments. From preventative maintenance to installation and fix services, ApplianceStar Company has everything you need to keep your devices running smoothly. Contact the firm today to schedule an appointment for your device fix or installation needs.
Remember, no matter what happens to your equipment, we will do Microwave Repair Mississauga quickly, efficiently, with a guarantee. https://appliancestar.ca/how-to-microwave-repair-mississauga/ #MicrowaveRepairMississauga #appliancestar #ApplianceRepair
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2023.03.30 10:41 sneha640 Web Designing Ecommerce Service Offer Best Ecommerce Development Service in Nagpur
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2023.03.30 10:40 suvam-07 Everything you need to know about: THE APPRENTICE ACT, 1961.
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Apprenticeships are great for job seekers to gain company-specific skills. It is also easier for employers to find talented people and people who fit their needs well. The apprenticeship Act of 1961, amended in 1973 and 1986, protects apprentices and enforces labor rules.
The pandemic hurt businesses, which will always need people who can work, even if the economy is doing well. An apprenticeship could be a solution to this problem. The Apprentices Act says that the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship will pay the stipend of 2.43 lakh apprentices nationwide in 2020. This will cost the government an estimated 36 crore INR.
Apprentice Act, 1961
aims to regulate and control how apprentices are trained. On March 1, 1962, it went into effect.
The Act has rules about the followings-
- Qualifications of apprentices,
- The duties of employers and apprentices,
- The length of an apprenticeship,
- How to end an apprenticeship contract
- How to settle disputes between employers and apprentices,
- Reservation for Schedule Caste (SC) and Schedule Tribe (ST) in designated trades (any trade, occupation, or ‘any subject field in engineering or technology’ that the central government specifies as a ‘designated trade’ under the Act).
The Act calls for the National Council, a Central Apprenticeship Council, State Councils, State Apprenticeship Councils, an All India Council, Regional Boards, State Councils of Technical Education, the Central Apprenticeship Adviser, and State Apprenticeship Advisers to be set up to oversee apprenticeship training.
The Act covers the entire country of India.
- Who is an ‘apprentice’ in the eyes of the Act?
Apprentices or trade apprentices learn how to do a job in any industry or business under a contract with an employer. An apprenticeship act is a contract between an employer and a person who wants to learn how to do a job.
Apprentices must be at least 14 years old and meet the education and physical fitness requirements for the trade they want to learn.
- What does the Apprentice Act say concerning the apprentice's income, welfare, and health?
Every employer is required to provide an apprentice with a stipend during the Apprenticeship at a rate that is not less than the 'specified minimum rate.' No "piece work" compensation or participation in any "output bonus" programs is permitted for apprentices. Any time spent attending training sessions or receiving relevant instructions will be compensated.
The provision of the Mines Act of 1952
and the Factories Act of 1948
, respectively, must be followed if an apprentice is receiving training in a mine or factory. The Workmen's Compensation act of 1923
.pdf) requires the employer to provide compensation if an apprentice sustains an injury while undergoing training.
An apprentice's weekly and daily work schedule must follow the guidelines. Unless with the approval of the apprenticeship advisor, they shall not be compelled to perform overtime work or be permitted to do so. The trainee is entitled to any prescribed holidays and leave.
- What duties must both employers and apprentices comply with under the Apprentice Act?
Every employer has to ensure that the apprentice receives training under the provisions of this Act, to provide instructional staff, to make sure that the instructional staff and the person in charge of training have the necessary credentials, and to uphold the duties outlined in the apprenticeship contract. Employers must set aside "training spots" for SCs and STs in each designated trade according to the state's population of SCs and STs.
Apprentices must receive practical instruction in their workshops; thus, employers must make accommodations. The employer must build a separate structure or a portion of a building to train trade apprentices if more than 500 people are engaged in the company.
Every person completing an apprenticeship in a trade must learn their business carefully and diligently, attend practical and academic classes regularly, obey all legitimate instructions from their employer and superiors, and adhere to the apprenticeship contract requirements.
- What happens when the Apprenticeship is over?
The National Council will administer a test to establish an apprentice's skill level in the selected trade after their training time. After passing the test, the National Council will provide the apprentice with a certificate of proficiency.
Unless stated explicitly in the apprenticeship contract, neither the employer nor the apprentice is required to make an employment offer to an apprentice who has finished training in the employer's facility.
- There are 38 Schedule and General Sections.
- This Schedule adjusts the Workmen's Compensation Act 1923 for students under the Apprentices Act 1961.
Employers should promote Apprenticeship.
Apprenticeship provides skilled and trained workers for the future. Apprenticeships help employers recruit top talent. Employers can hire competent, qualified workers who can advance to more challenging roles. Apprenticeship programs help employers meet and improve training standards. They have reduced personnel turnover and training costs.
Major apprentices Act Amendments
The Apprentice (Amendment) Act, 2014, took effect on December 26, 2014,
to ensure the Apprentice Act was adequately implemented.
LOK SABHA (Introduced) Aug 07, 2014
LOK SABHA (Passed) Aug 14, 2014
RAJYA SABHA (Passed) Dec 26,2014
The amendment changes the following:
- The definition of ‘worker’ has been changed to include people who work for an agency or on a contract. This is true because the number of employees in a status quo is one of the things that could be considered when deciding how many apprentices to hire in a company.
- If someone breaks the Apprentice Act, they no longer go to jail. After the change, the only punishment for not allowing the rules of the Act is to pay a fine.
- Due to the change in the apprentice act, the way that the number of apprentices to be hired is checked has changed.
- With the portal's launch, the Apprentice Act change has made it possible to switch from paper records to electronic records and information systems. Some things could be done through the portal that can already be done online, such as registering the apprenticeship contract, keeping records, filing returns, etc.
The main goal of these changes is to get more employees to hire Apprentices and to get the organization to follow the rules of the Apprentices Act.
The apprenticeship Act aids in the resolution of the disagreement between the apprentice and the employer, and the Apprenticeship Advisor serves as the final arbiter. They should appeal to the committee that the council constituted. He will be punished if the employer does not follow the Act's provisions. The apprenticeship Act of 1961 is a comprehensive statute that protects both the employer's and the apprentice's rights. The Apprentice Act can be put into action to protect the rights of the apprentice and resolve the issue they encountered throughout their training.
Looking forward to implementing NAPS in your organization? 2COMS can help you implement it with a case while you stay compliant with labor laws. Not to mention you get financial benefits. Ask us how! Visit https://2coms.com/solutions/apprenticeship-management